Frances Teresa Stuart, Duchess of Richmond
In the Westminster Abbey collection is a life size (5 feet 8 inches) wax effigy of Frances Teresa (Stuart), Duchess of Richmond and Lennox. Known as 'La Belle Stuart' she was born in 1647, the daughter of Walter Stuart (a distant relative of the royal house of Stuart) and his wife Sophia. She was brought up in France and after the Restoration came to England with her mother and was appointed maid of honour to Catherine of Braganza, queen of Charles II. Samuel Pepys, the diarist, recorded that she was the greatest beauty he had ever seen. The King was so besotted with her that he considered divorcing Catherine to marry her but Frances had already accepted the proposal of Charles Stuart, Duke of Richmond and Lennox (as his third wife). She eloped with him, much to the fury of the King, and they were married privately in March 1667. He was the only son of Lord George Stuart and was Vice Admiral of Kent and Ambassador to Denmark. Frances was depicted as Britannia on two commemorative medals. Unfortunately in 1668 she was disfigured by smallpox.
She ordered that her wax effigy, dressed in her coronet, robes and shoes worn at Queen Anne's coronation, be set up in Henry VII's chapel near the grave of Ludovic Stuart, cousin of James I, (d.1624) and his wife Frances. She died on 15th October 1702 and was buried in the Duke of Richmond's vault in Henry VII's chapel. Her husband (d.1672) had been buried there but neither have monuments or gravestones. Frances had intended the wax figure, modelled by Mrs Goldsmith, to be her memorial. It was set up in the chapel in August 1703.
The effigy, in its showcase, stood by the graveside until the early 19th century when, with several other wax figures, it was moved to the upper Islip chapel. All the wax figures were on show in the Abbey Museum from the 1950s.
Her Pet Parrot
Beside her wax effigy is displayed her pet African grey parrot on a stand. It is said to have lived with her for 40 years and died soon after her. Very few mounted bird specimens survive from this period but x-rays show that the entire skeleton of the bird is intact including its skull. This was a very primitive technique but the parrot probably survived because it was kept in a showcase. It is perhaps the oldest stuffed bird in existence.
Also in the Richmond vault are buried Charles Stuart's wives Elizabeth and Margaret and James (Stuart) (d.1655), Duke of Richmond and Lennox and his widow Mary.
The heart of James's son Esme (d.1660) lies in an urn on a pyramid memorial next to Ludovic's large monument.
The effigy and parrot are on display in the new Queen's Diamond Jubilee Galleries in the Abbey triforium.
The funeral effigies of Westminster Abbey edited by A.Harvey & R.Mortimer (revised 2003)
The Honour of Richmond. A history of the Lords, Earls and Dukes of Richmond by David Morris, 2000
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004
The Antiquity of the Duchess of Richmond's parrot by P. Morris, Museums Journal November 1981